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Application Notes

Our library of application notes can help you find the most suitable products and methods for your application. You can search for this information by Product Type, Sample Type, Application or by Technique. Feel free to contact us if you need assistance.


Chemistry of Pumpkin Spice

Summary Taste and smell are two of our primary sensory systems in which humans perceive the world. The scent and taste we experience influence our moods, perceptions and memories. Both taste and smell are chemoreceptive senses, meaning that there are specialized sensory receptor cells that convert a chemical substance to a signal such as a neurotransmitter or an action potential in a nerve cell.

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Grinding Bone in the Freezer/Mill

Any plant or animal tissue can be ground in a Cole-Parmer Freezer/Mill, and this includes all bone; fresh or aged, wet or dry. Freezer/Mill grinding vials are immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN) before and during grinding, first to make the sample brittle enough to grind, and then to keep it brittle during the actual grinding. The actual grinding is done by a rod-shaped steel impactor that is magnetically shuttled back and forth between two steel end plugs.

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The Use of Cryogenic Grinding to Comply with the RoHS/WEEE Directive

The Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directives of the European Union were introduced to minimize the accumulation of hazardous waste in landfills from the disposal electrical and electronic equipment. The concentration of hazardous substances such as lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium VI, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDSs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are restricted in electrical and electronic products and/or components.  RoHS/WEEE states that if the component can be mechanically separated, then each component is subject to the RoHS limits.

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High Throughput Disruption of Yeast in a 96-Well Format

  The wealth of information generated from years of biochemical, genetic, and molecular analyses has made yeasts both model biological systems and tools for bio pharmaceutical scientists. Consequently, yeast are a popular host for gene expression studies and for the production of recombinant proteins. Though many yeast species are in use, including Pichia, Hansenula, and Debaryomyces, the most popular yeast continues to be Saccharomyces.

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Comparison of Pesticide Extraction in Agricultural Products Using a Manual Shaking Method and Mechanical Mixing with the Geno/Grinder®

Abstract Since its introduction in 2003 by Anastassiades and Lehotay et al, the QuEChERS method1 (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) has proven to be effective and convenient for analysis of multiple pesticides in agricultural products. Increasing concern over the health effects of residual pesticides on fruits and vegetables has led to increased testing of these products to determine the levels of pesticides on produce when it goes to market. The QuEChERS method has allowed analysts to process a greater number of samples in a shorter period of time than with previous methods.

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Analysis of Pesticides in Fruit and Vegetable Products using a Standard QuEChERS Method and a Modified Method Involving the Geno/Grinder

Introduction Pesticide residues in agricultural food sources are widely considered to cause adverse health effects when consumed by humans. In particular, much of the produce sold in the US is imported and concern over pesticide levels in these fruits and vegetables in comparison to those grown domestically has resulted in increased testing for pesticide residues. In 2003, the QuEChERS method for pesticide analysis was introduced by Anastassiades and Lehotay et al.

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Feedstuffs Analysis – Crude Fat (Hexane Extractables)

Principle Lipids are recovered by simultaneous milling and extraction with hexane in a sealed ball mill vial. Scope The method is applicable to feedstuffs, corn germ and other components derived from the milling of corn (Note 1). Special Apparatus 1.

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Bead Beating - Introduction & Guide

Bead beating is an effective process used to disrupt a wide range of biological samples. It is achieved by rapidly agitating samples with grinding media (balls or beads) in a bead beater. Samples can be processed with or without buffer or solvent at room temperature or cryogenically.

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Mechanical Alloying with the Cole-Parmer Mixer/Mill

Cole-Parmer Mixer/Mills are routinely used for pulverizing rocks, minerals, sand, cement, slag, ceramics, catalyst supports, and hundreds of other brittle, often hard samples. Typically, samples are ground, then blended with binder before being pressed into sample discs for XRF analysis, or dissolved into solution for ICP analysis. The vigorous motion of the clamp is also excellent for making emulsions, such as paints, inks and pharmaceuticals.

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The Benefits of the Geno/Grinder® High-Throughput Tissue Homogenizer to Increase Sample Throughput for Pesticide Residue Analysis by LC/MS/MS

Summary The high-throughput analysis of pesticides has been hindered by the slow and laborious sample preparation stage. Using traditional clean-up procedures, over twenty steps are required to get the sample in a  convenient form for analysis, which limits sample throughput to typically 8 samples per day. This study  evaluates a new approach using an innovative laboratory tissue homogenizer, to extract various pesticide residues from different kinds of plant materials and to identify and quantitate the active ingredients by  LC/MS/MS.

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Principles of Sample Preparation by Grinding or Comminution

Sample preparation is the process where a representative piece of material, chemical or substance is extracted from a larger amount, bulk or batch for subsequent analysis. Representative samples are selected to accurately reflect the larger group and represent the characteristics of the whole material. Ideally representative samples are homogeneous or similar in nature, but when that is not possible, the best attempts must be made to achieve samples which represent the majority of the characteristics of the larger grouping.

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